Ruang Rakyat–The projection of European Summer Temperature could rise by 6o Celsius by 2100. Trend of temperature rising even occurs in all countries in this world, it begins on 1950s since the industrial revolution era. Climate change shifts the distributions of a set of climatic variables, including temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind speed, sunshine duration, and evaporation.
It would lead to the depletion of ozone layer, arctic warming, and sea-level rise. Climate change is caused by global warming due to the greenhouse effect. Earth’s surface is heated by the sun and radiates out heat back towards space, while Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) trap some of the heat, warming the earth.
In Indonesia, climate change models show global sea level rise will not exceed 1 meter and will continue to increase at the end of the 21 century. However, because of the humidity in the climate system with the continuous global temperature rise of 2 degrees Celsius, the global sea level rise predicted would reach 10-15 meters.
Indonesia contributed in generating transboundary haze pollution and GHGs emissions because forest fires on 2015. According to Indonesia’s Ministry of Environment and Forestry, 2,6 million hectares of Indonesia land burned between June and October 2015. This incident occurred because of insufficient law enforcement to control forest burning. Indonesia’s path dependent political economy is one of the main driver of forest fires.
Based on World Bank Data, Indonesia lost USD 16,1 billion which equal to 1.9% of Indonesia 2015 GDP because of those forest fires. Climate change will make an impact for the Indonesian people, approximately 1,500 islands in Indonesia could be under sea level by 2050 because of rising sea levels.
In accordance with thelong-term goal in Paris Agreement, all nations have to curb the increase in average global temperature below 2°C, with a target limit of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels and strengthen the ability of countries to deal with climate change impacts. For Indonesia, this agreement is to accommodate national interest to encourage the parties for reaching global disposition.
Paris Agreement has been legislated through Indonesia Act No 16/2016 about Ratification of Paris Agreement To The UNFCCC emphasized the importance of efforts to reduce emissions, adaptation, sea and forest conservation, increase renewable energy, and the participation of local communities and indigenous peoples in curbing climate change. Indonesia declared emission reduction targets by 2030 of 29% on their own, and 41% with international assistance.
Climate change as an unprecedented global challenge needs response from private sectors, and most of all, political leaders. In order to achieve that, the low-carbon transition which is one of Mission Innovation’s goal is the greatest opportunity of our lifetime. Low-carbon transition is answer to cope climate change and also as opportunity to resolving financial crisis, including in Indonesia. Furthermore, this transition aims to accelerate the pace of clean energy innovation.
Through this good opportunity, developing countries is possible to compete in the world energy market, especially Indonesia which has various natural disaster and high consumption energy. This transition aims to achieve the pace of clean energy of innovation which will be accelerate in achieving performance breakthrough and cost reduction to provide affordable and reliable clean energy.
Decarbonize the global economy during the course of this century is important thing to do. Decarbonization could reduce GHGs emissions to prevent the worst impact of climate change from hitting humankind, particularly world’s poorest and most vulnerable. Solution such as these are urgently needed today because science has confirmed that to avoid the worst effects of climate change, the world must reach net zero emissions globally by 2050 (UNEP, 2014).
UNEP. (2014). UN Calls for Global Carbon Neutrality by Mid to late Century, Warns against Exceeding ‘Emissions Budget’ Beyond 2020 to stay within safe 2C Limit. Washington DC.
World Bank. (2016). The Cost of Fire: An Economic Analysis of Indonesia’s 2015 Fire Crisis. Jakarta
Zhang, P., Zhang, J., & Chen, M. (2016). Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture: The Importance of Additional Climatic Variables Other than Temperature and Precipitation. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management